For most women the second trimester of pregnancy is less eventful than the first trimester. The fatigue is lessened. The nausea and vomiting decrease or are absent and you no longer have frequent urination. Your abdomen is growing slowly and you start to wear maternity clothes. Your body is becoming rounder around the middle and notably at the hips, too, but it is not yet unwieldy. In short, you feel great. For most women, the 4th, 5th, and 6th mnonths of pregnancy are uneventful and even enjoyable.
At this stage, you are still seeing your physician once a month, unless you have a medcal condition that warrants more frequent visits. You are taking an iron and folic acid supplement, and you should be making an effort to eat a balanced diet containing several servings each day of protein-rich foods including milk products, fruits, vegetables, and grains. You probably did not gain more than a few pounds during your first trimester but now notice your weight starts to increase. This is not uncommon; many women gain the bulk of their weight during the second trimester.
If you have been contemplating travel, now is probably the best time during pregnancy to take a trip. You are feeling better than during the earlier months, and as your due date approaches your increased size will tax your energies and you will be better off staying close to home.
Although the second trimester is the easiest part of pregnancy for most women, it is not without risks. Miscarriage is not the risk that it was during the first 3 months, but some labors commence during the second trimester. A fetus delivered this early is not yet mature enough to survive. Although premature labor most often occurs later (third trimester), defects of the uterus can lead to this early labor during mid-pregnancy.
Premature labor is not uncommon problem of the second trimester of pregnancy. It usually presents with A gush of fluid escaping from your vagina and abdominal contractions. Normally, labor occurs about 40 weeks (280 days) after the first day of your last period. If your baby is born between 38 and 42 weeks, delivery is considered at term. Sometimes, for various reasons, labor, the signal that your baby is about to be born, begins before term. The less time your infant has had in your womb, the less its chances of survival. Thus, premature labor can be an ominous sign. In some cases, however, an early labor may be induced by your physician if the uterine environment appears to be becoming increasingly harmful to the fetus and its chances of survival are better outside the womb.
The membranes that surround the baby may rupture. If that occurs, you will feel a gush of fluid escape from your vagina. This usually occurs when labor is in progress, but occasionally it is the first step. You also may feel some contractions in your abdomen, which may go from mild to severe. Generally, if you have contractions that last for at least 30 seconds and occur every 10 minutes, you are probably in labor.
Most often the precise cause of premature labor is never determined. However, the following conditions are associated with premature or preterm labor: spontaneous rupture of membranes, incompetent cervix , abnormal uterus, hydramnios, abnormal fetus or placenta, placenta previa, retained intrauterine contraceptive device, preeclampsia and eclampsia, death of the fetus, and history of premature delivery, multiple fetuses, cigarette smoking, hemorrhage, and serious maternal disease.
The treatment for premature labor varies, depending on the age of the fetus. Initially, many physicians prescribe bed rest and observation. This precaution alone is sometimes successful for stopping contractions. Tranquilizers may be given to ease your anxiety. Thus far there is no specific drug that is always successful for stopping premature labor. However, several therapies have had some degree of success. Magnesium sulfate may be effective for stopping labor. If your physician prescribes this drug, you will be monitored in the hospital very carefully because magnesium sulfate can cause breathing problems. Moreover, the drug does pass through the placenta, and it also may affect your newborn's respiratory movements.
Another group of drugs that has had some success in arresting labor are the beta mimetics. These drugs, which must be given in the hospital where you can be monitored closely, mimic the effects of epinephrine, the hormone the body secretes in response to danger.. These drugs will temporarily stop labor and relax the uterus. If you are given one of these drugs, your heart will beat faster, you may feel shaky and anxious, and your blood pressure and blood sugar concentration will increase. Other possible side effects include fluid in the lungs and chest pain. Like magnesium sulfate, the beta mimetics cross the placenta, and as a result your baby experiences similar symptoms.
lf your premature labor is determined to be the result of a defect in your uterus, some- times an operation can be done to forestall labor. One procedure, called "cerclage," involves placing surgical stitches (sutures) around the cervix so the infant can stay in the womb until term.
In recent years, major advances have been made in the care of seriously ill or premature infants. Babies as small as 1 pound now have a chance of survival when they are cared for in specialized neonatal units. However, most infants born before the third trimester of pregnancy do not survive
Read More About other Problems of the Second Trimester:
Amniotic Fluid Disorders
Pregnancy Week To Week 1- 40